Tail wags, the universal language. :)
We don’t has much of a tails. Just bear hands to communicate.
This passes the smell test.
One of my “friends” who passed last year was deaf from birth and he could “feel” the barks from one of our chihuahua’s. That was how the chihuahua would “call” for reinforcements when someone came to the door if he was sleeping.
Once a pal, always a pal.
Wags ARE ways to communicate, but good family dogs have a keen perception of others needs also……
She was just nodding her head – doesn’t mean she actually understood.
Most dog communication is non-verbal body language. By the time it gets to “Bark” you’ve already missed half the conversation.