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  1. martens misses all her friends commented on Brian McFadden about 5 hours ago

    ;-)

    And Ruff says what about the thrupp-nee bit?

  2. martens misses all her friends commented on Mike Lester about 5 hours ago

    Thank you, Wraithkin, for taking the time and making the effort to answer so constructively. I also have learned from your answer.
    If I comprehend at all, I think you are speaking of trust, without which no human endeavors can take place. There are so many situations in which we cannot function without it. To broaden out, i think that this is the current major problem of our present day societies. If no one trusts anyone else, there is no basis for community action of any sort. So my question is how do we expand our circle to include more in our trust? Is it even possible or is there an upper limit on the extent of one’s circle?

  3. martens misses all her friends commented on Clay Bennett about 6 hours ago

    You know, your constant accusation against the various cartoonists here of lying is getting more than a little annoying.
    Cut it out.
    There are more constructive ways to post your opinions

  4. martens misses all her friends commented on Jen Sorensen about 10 hours ago

    The article that I posted the link for goes into the possible mechanisms for survival, including colonizing higher latitude regions. They are sessile, so the existing reefs cannot move, but the larvae can as zooplankton. And then we get into other problems. Developmental stages of these organisms can be very sensitive to a number of factors, for example, temperature, salinity, pH, and various diseases. A really complicating aspect is that stressful changes of two or more factors is highly likely to be synergistic, that is the effect is greater than the simple sum of the two factors separately. This is, of course, why it is difficult to predict exactly how dire such ecological factors will be and to determine just where the tipping point for any given species may be.

  5. martens misses all her friends commented on Matt Davies about 11 hours ago

    True. I put those refs in for the people who care about the data. Also found an interesting paper by three high school students—they are more involved and capable that some might guess.

  6. martens misses all her friends commented on Clay Bennett about 13 hours ago

    Looks as if throwing the term “Nazi” around can have bad effects on some…logicalone, you did it again.
    If you had only calmed down on the rhetoric, I’m sure that you wouldn’t have been vanished again.

  7. martens misses all her friends commented on Jen Sorensen about 15 hours ago

    Coral reef bleaching: Causes and consequences.

    Regions where major coral reef bleaching events have taken place during the past 15 years
    Yellow spots indicate major bleaching events.
    Conclusion
    If a global warming trend impacts on shallow tropical and subtropical seas, we may expect an increase in the frequency, severity and scale of coral reef bleaching. Coral mortality could exceed 95% regionally with species extirpation and extinctions. A conservative temperature increase of 1-2 degrees C would cause regions between 20-30 degrees N to experience sustained warming that falls within the lethal limits of most reef-building coral species. In conjunction with sea temperature rise would be a sea level rise, and it has been suggested that sea level rise would suppress coral growth or kill many corals through drowning or lower light levels. Some coral populations and their endosymbiotic zooxanthellae may be able to adapt to the extreme conditions predicted during global climate change. Refuges in benign habitats, such as deep, sunlit reef substrates, oceanic shoals and relatively high latitude locations, might exist, but widespread coral mortality and reef decline would be expected in shallow reef zones in most low latitude. Even if significant sea warming and elevated irradiance levels do not occur, coral reef degradation from anthropogenic pollution and overexploitation will still continue, a result of unrelenting human population growth.

  8. martens misses all her friends commented on Matt Davies about 15 hours ago

    Just a quick selection of abstracts on climate change and oceanic pH. Many are free access for the full papers for those who are interested, but they will all require a certain amount of knowledge of basic marine biology and chemistry to be read easily

  9. martens misses all her friends commented on Matt Davies about 15 hours ago

    Earth and Planetary Science Letters,Vol.273,15 September 2008, Pages 260–269

    Controls on shell Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in cultured planktonic foraminiferan, Globigerinoides ruber (white)

    B. Kisaküreka, A. Eisenhauera, F. Böhma, D. Garbe-Schönbergb, J. Erezc,

    Abstract

    Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were determined on a single species of planktonic foraminiferan, Globigerinoides ruber (white), collected from the Gulf of Eilat and cultured in seawater at five different salinities (32 to 44), five temperatures (18 to 30 °C) and four pH values (7.9 to 8.4). The Mg/Ca-temperature calibration of cultured G. ruber (with an exponential slope of 8 ± 3%/°C) agrees well with previously published calibrations from core-tops and sediment traps. However, the dependence of Mg/Ca on salinity (with an exponential slope of 5 ± 3%/psu) is also significant and should be included in the calibration equation. With this purpose, we calculated a calibration equation for G. ruber dependent on both temperature and salinity within the 95% confidence limits:
    Mg/Ca(mmol/mol)=exp[0.06(±0.02)S(psu)+0.08(±0.02)T(°C)-2.8(±1.0)],R2=0.95Mg/Ca(mmol/mol)=exp[0.06(±0.02)S(psu)+0.08(±0.02)T(°C)-2.8(±1.0)],R2=0.95
    The influence of pH on Mg/Ca ratios is negligible at ambient seawater pH (8.1 to 8.3). However, we observe a dominating pH control on shell Mg/Ca when the pH of seawater is lower than 8.0. Sr/Ca in G. ruber shows a significant positive correlation with average growth rate. Presumably, part of the variability in shell Sr/Ca in the geological record is linked to changes in growth rates of foraminifera as a response to changing environmental conditions.

    Research Letters in Ecology, Vol. 2009 (2009), Article ID 105901, 4 pages
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/105901

    Effect of Low pH on Carbohydrate Production by a Marine Planktonic Diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri)
    Daniel C. O. Thornton

    Department of Oceanography, College of Geosciences, Texas A&M University, Eller O&M Building, College Station, TX 77843-3146, USA

    Abstract

    Rising carbon dioxide ( C O 2 ) concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activity are causing the surface ocean to become more acidic. Diatoms play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function in the ocean. pH affected the quantum efficiency of photosystem II and carbohydrate metabolism in a planktonic diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri), representative of a widely distributed genus. In batch cultures grown at low pH, the proportion of total carbohydrate stored within the cells decreased and more dissolved carbohydrates were exuded from the cells into the surrounding medium. Changes in productivity and the way in which diatoms allocate carbon into carbohydrates may affect ecosystem function and the efficiency of the biological carbon pump in a low pH ocean.

    Nature 407, 364-367 (21 September 2000) | doi:10.1038/35030078; Received 2 August 1999; Accepted 18 July 2000

    Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2

    Ulf Riebesell1, Ingrid Zondervan1, Björn Rost1, Philippe D. Tortell2, Richard E. Zeebe1,3 & François M. M. Morel2

    Abstract

    The formation of calcareous skeletons by marine planktonic organisms and their subsequent sinking to depth generates a continuous rain of calcium carbonate to the deep ocean and underlying sediments1. This is important in regulating marine carbon cycling and ocean–atmosphere CO2 exchange2. The present rise in atmospheric CO2 levels3 causes significant changes in surface ocean pH and carbonate chemistry4. Such changes have been shown to slow down calcification in corals and coralline macroalgae5,6, but the majority of marine calcification occurs in planktonic organisms. Here we report reduced calcite production at increased CO2 concentrations in monospecific cultures of two dominant marine calcifying phytoplankton species, the coccolithophorids Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica . This was accompanied by an increased proportion of malformed coccoliths and incomplete coccospheres. Diminished calcification led to a reduction in the ratio of calcite precipitation to organic matter production. Similar results were obtained in incubations of natural plankton assemblages from the north Pacific ocean when exposed to experimentally elevated CO2 levels. We suggest that the progressive increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may therefore slow down the production of calcium carbonate in the surface ocean. As the process of calcification releases CO2 to the atmosphere, the response observed here could potentially act as a negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 levels.

    ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 65(3), p. 414-432.

    Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes

    Victoria J. Fabry,Brad A. Seibel, Richard A. Feely and James C. OrrAbstract

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is altering the seawater chemistry of the world’s oceans with consequences for marine biota. Elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is causing the calcium carbonate saturation horizon to shoal in many regions, particularly in high latitudes and regions that intersect with pronounced hypoxic zones. The ability of marine animals, most importantly pteropod molluscs, foraminifera, and some benthic invertebrates, to produce calcareous skeletal structures is directly affected by seawater CO2 chemistry. CO2 influences the physiology of marine organisms as well through acid-base imbalance and reduced oxygen transport capacity. The few studies at relevant pCO2 levels impede our ability to predict future impacts on foodweb dynamics and other ecosystem processes. Here we present new observations, review available data, and identify priorities for future research, based on regions, ecosystems, taxa, and physiological processes believed to be most vulnerable to ocean acidification. We conclude that ocean acidification and the synergistic impacts of other anthropogenic stressors provide great potential for widespread changes to marine ecosystems.